Within the management literature, there has been a attempt to distinguish between innovation and closely allied concepts. Teresa M. Amab ile, for example saw the need to distinguish between innovation and creativity. For her, creativity is the production of novel and useful ideas in any domain, whereas innovation is the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization (1996). Creativity is thus a necessary but not sufficient condition for innovation.
Innovation resides in the individuals and teams that fuel it inside great organizations because all great movements ultimately are human powered (Kelley, 2005). Amabile (1998) has defined three components of creativity: (1) expertise, (2) creative-thinking, and (3) skills and motivation. The degree of creativity within an individual corresponds to the mixture of these three components. Expertise involves the technical and intellectual knowledge in possession by the individual and the organisation (collectively). Creative-thinking is about the individual’s skills that facilitate imaginative problem solving. Motivation is derived from the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence an individual. Each of these factors is interrelated, meaning that they exact influence on each other with different degrees. Through the development of an appropriate culture that manages these three components may increase an organisation’s creative capability. By developing a learning organisation environment all three components of creativity can increase and ultimately also the level of innovation towards an innovative culture (Amabile, 1998). Creativity can draw on others for inspiration and validation, but it is primarily thought to be an individual pursuit (Flynn et al., 2003). Weisberg has highlighted the fact that creativity is a skilled that must be learned and its practitioners must undertake informal or formal training before explicit value is can be produced (1993). Flynn et al (2003:7) has put forth the following view of organisational creativity:
“The degree of organisational creative output may be viewed as the product of the interaction between the collective individuals within the organisation, the knowledge that they and the organisation possess or decipher, the resources available to be expended on
the types of processes, tasks and systems that exist within the organisation. Through effective development of these four areas, organisation may be able to enhance their creative output.”